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This topic provides information on RTIs, STIs and HIV/AIDS in Adolescents.
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Estimating the prevalence of HIV and sexual behaviors among the US transgender population: a systematic review and meta-analysis, — Am J Public Health Worldwide burden of HIV in transgender women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Syndemic theory and HIV-related risk among young transgender women: the role of multiple, co-occurring health problems and social marginalization.

Am J Public Health ; 9 Age of individuals who identify as transgender in the United States. Accessed January 28, Virgin Islands, July Funding opportunity announcement: PS Comprehensive high-impact HIV prevention projects for community-based organizations. AIDS Behav ; December De Santis JP. HIV infection risk factors among male-to-female transgender persons: a review of the literature.

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How many adults identify as transgender in the United States? June Life Skills: evaluation of a theory-driven behavioral HIV prevention intervention for young transgender women. Examples of targeted motivational messages on condom use and needle sharing are provided figures 1 and 2.

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Examples of tailoring messages regarding condom use for sexually active, HIV-infected persons. This is not a comprehensive list of all questions that could be asked. Examples of tailoring messages regarding needle sharing for HIV-infected persons who continue to inject drugs. Prevention messages can be reinforced by subsequent longer or more intensive interventions in clinic or office environments by nurses, social workers, or health educators, if feasible [ 6 , 83— ].

Many patients have underlying issues that impede adoption of safer behaviors, and achieving behavioral change is often dependent on addressing such issues. Clinicians will usually not have time or resources to fully address these issues, many of which can best be addressed through referrals for services such as intensive HIV prevention interventions e.

Patients who have difficulty initiating or sustaining behaviors that reduce or prevent HIV transmission may benefit from prevention case management PCM. PCM provides intensive, client-centered risk assessment; prevention counseling; and assistance accessing other services to address issues that affect patients' health and ability to change risk-taking behavior. For IDUs, ceasing injection drug use is the only reliable way to eliminate risk for injection-associated HIV transmission; however, many IDUs are unable to sustain abstinence without substance abuse treatment.

Early entry and maintenance in substance abuse treatment programs and sustained abstinence from injecting are important for reducing risk for HIV transmission from infected IDUs [ — ].

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Some IDUs are not able or willing to stop injecting drugs; for these persons, once-only use of sterile syringes can significantly reduce risk for injection-related HIV transmission [ — ]. Referrals that match the patient's self-identified priorities are more likely to be successful than those that do not. Discussion with the patient can identify factors that may make it difficult for the patient to complete the referral e. Patients need specific information to successfully access referral services and may need assistance e. When a clinician does not have the capacity to make all appropriate referrals, or when needs are complex, a case manager can help make referrals and coordinate care.

Clinicians can prepare to deliver HIV prevention messages and behavioral interventions by developing strategies for incorporating risk-reduction interventions into patients' clinic visits [ ], obtaining training [ — ], becoming familiar with interventions that have demonstrated effectiveness [ ], and becoming familiar with community resources. Examples of case scenarios for prevention counseling are provided in tables 13— Many HIV-infected persons are not aware of their infection; thus, they cannot benefit from early medical care and do not know they may be transmitting HIV to others.

Reaching such persons as early after infection as possible is important for their health and for reducing HIV transmission. Partner counseling and referral services PCRS , including partner notification, are intended to address these problems by 1 providing services to HIV-infected persons and their sex and needle-sharing partners so the partners can take steps to avoid becoming infected or infecting others, and 2 helping infected partners gain earlier access to medical care and other services table 17 [ ]. PCRS is confidential and voluntary. Partners can be reached and informed of their exposure by the infected person, clinicians in the private sector, or health department staff.

Notification by the health department appears to be substantially more effective than notification by the infected person [ 96 ]. Also, one observational study suggested health department specialists were more successful than physicians in interviewing patients and locating partners [ ]. Health departments have staff who are trained to do partner notification and skilled at providing this free, confidential service.

These specialists can work closely with public and private sector clinicians who treat persons with HIV and other STDs.

Most states and some cities or localities have laws and regulations related to informing partners they have been exposed to HIV. Clinicians should know and comply with such requirements. Members of the working group.

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Sevgi Aral, Samuel W. Dooley, Mary L. Onorato, Thomas A. Peterman, Kathryn J. Rauch, Renee Ridzon, and J. Consultants to the working group. Greenberg, Kathleen Irwin, Harold W. Jaffe, Robert S. Other consultants: Bruce D. The preparers of this article are grateful to P. Lynne Stockton and P. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.

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Risk Screening. Behavioral Interventions. Figures and Tables. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Health Resources and Services Administration. National Institutes of Health. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Open in new tab Download slide. Sex-related and injection-drug—related behaviors to address in behavioral risk screening. Available diagnostic testing for detection of sexually transmitted diseases STDs.

Examples of messages that should be communicated to drug users who continue to inject. Recommendations for partner counseling and referral services, including partner notification. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for national human immunodeficiency virus case surveillance, including monitoring for human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The serostatus approach to fighting the HIV epidemic: prevention strategies for infected individuals.

Search ADS. Google Preview. Accessed 3 November Improving office-based physicians' prevention practices for sexually transmitted diseases. Improving medical residents' attitudes toward HIV-infected persons through training in an HIV staging and triage clinic. The doctor-patient relationship and HIV-infected patients' satisfaction with primary care physicians.

Self-reports of HIV risk factors by patients at a sexually transmitted disease clinic: audio vs. Comparability of a computer-assisted versus written method for collecting health behavior information from adolescent patients. Randomized controlled trial of audio computer-assisted self-interviewing: utility and acceptability in longitudinal studies. Risk reduction: sex without condoms. Reviews of evidence regarding interventions to reduce tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. From epidemiological synergy to public health policy and practice: the contribution of other sexually transmitted diseases to sexual transmission of HIV infection.

Impact of improved treatment of sexually transmitted diseases on HIV infection in rural Tanzania: randomized controlled trial. Epidemiological synergy: interrelationships between human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted diseases. Sexually transmitted diseases enhance HIV transmission: no longer a hypothesis. Association of sexually transmitted diseases and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus: biological cofactors and markers of behavioural interventions.