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Andy Warhol during the early s beginning to create films and video, [8] in the mids sponsored the Velvet Underground and staged events and performances in New York, like the Exploding Plastic Inevitable that featured live Rock music, exploding lights, and film. The Living Theatre chiefly toured in Europe between and , and in the U.

A work of this period, Paradise Now was notorious for its audience participation and a scene in which actors recited a list of social taboos that included nudity, while disrobing. The work of performance artists after often showed influences of the cultural and political events of that year. Barbara T. Smith with Ritual Meal was at the forefront of the feminist body-, and performance art of the s; among others including: Carolee Schneemann , and Joan Jonas.

At the beginning of the s, artists whose work had already before tended to be a performance art, as well as new artists, began to present performance art in a stricter form. New artists with radical performances were Chris Burden , with the performance piece Shoot , in which he was shot in his left arm by an assistant from a distance of about five meters, and Vito Acconci in the same year with Seedbed.

The book Expanded Cinema , by Gene Youngblood , marked a shift in the use of media by performance artists. The first book considering video art as an art form, mentions Jud Yalkut as a pioneering video artist. Since he had collaborated in dozens of intermedia performances throughout the United States, also with Nam June Paik , who beginning of the s already had been a fluxus performer on the way to become a media artist. As to the art of Paik, Youngblood refers to works of Carolee Schneemann and Robert Whitman from the s, which had been pioneering for performance art, becoming an independent artform at the beginning of the s.

The British-based pair Gilbert and George , already in , had documented actions of themselves on video, and created their "living sculpture" performance, being painted in gold and singing "Underneath The Arches" for extended periods. Joan Jonas began to include video in her experimental performances in Bruce Nauman staged his performances directly for video recording, whereas Jochen Gerz critically examined the state of alienation triggered by new media.

Since , the Feminist Studio Workshop at the Woman's Building in Los Angeles had a formative impact on the wave of performances with feminist background. Carolee Schneemann work in , Eye Body , already had been a prototype of performance art. Schneemann in drew on with innovative solo performances, like Interior Scroll , showing the female body as an artistic medium. Critical of the patriarchal discourse of art and the equally patriarchal state forced "emancipation program", pioneering feminist point of view on both, made her forerunner in the 70s political and artistic environment.

In , HA Schult filled St. Mark's Square in Venice with old newspapers in an overnight action he called Venezia vive. Performance art, because of its relative transience, by the s, had a fairly robust presence in the avant-garde of Eastern Bloc countries, especially Poland and Yugoslavia.

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Until the s, performance art had been demystifying virtuosity. Now it began to embrace technical brilliance. Despite the fact that many performances are held within the circle of a small art-world group, RoseLee Goldberg notes in Performance Art: From Futurism to the Present that "performance has been a way of appealing directly to a large public, as well as shocking audiences into reassessing their own notions of art and its relation to culture. Conversely, public interest in the medium, especially in the s, stems from an apparent desire of that public to gain access to the art world, to be a spectator of its ritual and its distinct community, and to be surprised by the unexpected, always unorthodox presentations that the artists devise.

Until the decline of the European eastern block during the late s, performance art had actively been rejected by most communist governments. With the exception of Poland and Yugoslavia, performance art was more or less banned in countries where any independent public event was feared. In the GDR, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Latvia it happened in apartments, at seemingly spontaneous gatherings in artist studios, in church-controlled settings, or covered as another activity, like a photo-shooting.

Isolated of the western conceptual context, in different settings it could be like a playful protest or like a bitter comment, using subversive metaphors to express dissent with the political situation.

Performing the Body/Performing the Text by Amelia Jones, Hardcover | Barnes & Noble®

Prior to , Hedwig Gorski designated the term performance poetry , to distinguish her text-based vocal performances from performance art, especially the work of performance artists, such as Laurie Anderson, who worked with music at that time. Performance poets relied more on the rhetorical and philosophical expression in their poetics than performance artists, who arose from the visual art genres of painting and sculpture. From to , the Dutch visual artist PINK de Thierry created what she came to call meta-performances: a conceptual mix of intervention art in public space, performance art—interacting with an audience, installation art—utilizing large structures to perform in or with, and media art—photography and film to register and exhibit.

Young artists from all over the former Eastern bloc, including Russia, turned to performance. Performance art at about the same time appeared in Cuba, the Caribbean and China. Chinese performance artists like Zhang Huan had been performing underground since the late s. In the early s Chinese performance art already was acclaimed in the international art scene.


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It should be emphasized that the eruption of performance art in the s in Eastern Europe, China, South Africa, Cuba, and elsewhere should never be considered either secondary to or imitative of the West. Since , HA Schult has installed one thousand life sized "Trash People" made from garbage as "silent witnesses to a consumer age that has created an ecological imbalance worldwide". In the western world in the s, even sophisticated performance art became part of the cultural mainstream: performance art as a complete artform gained admittance into art museums and became a museal topic.

In the late s and into the s, a number of artists incorporated technologies such as the World Wide Web, digital video, Webcams, and streaming media, into performance art works. In the second half of the decade, computer-aided forms of performance art began to take place. Since January , Tate Modern in London has had a curated programme of live art and performance and in The Tanks at Tate Modern were opened: the first dedicated spaces for performance, film, and installation in a major modern and contemporary art museum.

November From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Performing arts. Performance: A Critical Introduction. London and New York: Routledge. Adrian Parr eds.

The Deleuze Dictionary. Edinburgh University Press. Retrieved The New Media Reader. Cambridge, Massachusetts [u. Expanded Cinema. New York, New York: A. Jochen Gerz. Media Art Net. Archived from the original on 10 August Retrieved 16 August Novel art practices emerged that were often characterised by questioning and stretching the very borders of art, as in the case of Duchamp's conceptualism. Again, the emergence of conceptual art was to play a crucial part in the development of performance, where the artist's own body became included in the very definition of art.

One aspect important to remember is thus the "performer's body's" relation to the conceptual, where I will state that without concepts, there would never have been anything like "body art", nor "performance", not even "actions". Within performance art, the body signifies a certain body and its action, certain distinctive actions. I will return to this theoretical problem later on in the article, but first I will write about three artists who alongside Marcel Duchamp became crucial for questioning the very foundations of art.

During the late 's and the early 60's, Yves Klein worked with something he explained as the spiritual quality of "immaterial sensitivity". In for example, he threw gold leaves into the river Seine while he simultaneously requested the purchaser to burn the written proof of the art transaction.

In his exhibition Le Vide the Void at the Iris Clert Gallery, Paris, Klein created a "void" or "zone" of invisible pictorial sensibility by removing all the furniture and painting the walls white. In the book Conceptual Art, Tony Godfrey writes how Klein then went on to provide the visitors with a blue cocktail made from gin, cointreau, and methylene blue, "as a result of which they would urinate blue for some days afterwards.

Thus Klein forced his spectators to become conscious about mystification at work. Perhaps one of Klein's most famous contributions was his use of "living brushes", a form of performance he started working with in together with Tinguely. Klein defined them as paint actions, where human bodies were covered with paint and pressed against sheets of paper pinned to the wall or floor.

In October , the photographer Harry Shunk made a series of fictionalised photographic documents with a myth-making image of a "heroic" Yves Klein leaping out of a second-story window, fifteen feet above the street. This manipulated photograph was to have a deep impact on the "self-endangering" "heroic" trend that was to serve as an individual category within performance. The Italian Piero Manzoni approached the same issues as Yves Klein but his work is even more blasphemous and mocking.

He could for instance sell balloons containing his own breath with the title Artist's breath. Here he boiled a number of eggs and gave them to the audience after having signed them with his thumbprint. Then he invited the audience to eat all the eggs, so that the entire exhibition could be consumed. His perhaps most famous and certainly most notorious project was Artists shit, where he filled ninety boxes with his own faeces. They were to be sold, literally for their weight in gold. The complete mockery revealed itself when the artist informed the purchaser, that the work was ruined as a piece of art if he or she tried to open the seal.

Again, the spectator had to make an "act of faith", where the most important thing was how the artist defined the art spectator.

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Performing the Body/Performing the Text

John Cage adopted the Dadaist views about the anti-standard to the understanding of music. As a composer, Cage refused to accept any limits for music. As a consequence of this denial, Cage started to create his own instruments, like the prepared piano in which various materials were placed inside on the strings to change the quality of the sounds. And as Michael Kirby remarks in his article The New Theatre, not only did he equate sound and silence so that long passages of silence were integral parts of his compositions, but he pointed out that absolute silence does not exist.

Nor could it be isolated from noise or any everyday sound. And since sounds happen here and now and are ever present to our senses, Cage laid emphasis on the very performative aspect. Much more than being a part of the excluding definition of "music", his compositions formed performance-acts where everything and anything could be included.

As such, Klein, Manzoni's and Cages' work can be said to have had one important thing in common, the detestation of the fixed role of artistic definition and expression. Consequently, all of them believed that it was possible to free the artist from fixation by turning the main focus on the artist as a performer. Accordingly, performance art started as a protest and a wish to liberate art from the art object. By releasing art expression and emphasising the binding relationship between experience, body, space and time, where the artist was the centre of focus.

Performing the Body/Performing the Text

Consequently, the artist's body became the key for exploration of ideas and experience as a whole. Most of the members of the performance movement Fluxus were strongly influenced by John Cages' lectures in experimental composition at the New School for Social Research.

The Fluxus movement's intention was in many ways similar to the desire of the whole avant-garde movement before them, to display a strong disregard of traditional taste and the art market. George Maciunas coined the term in , he "used the actual dictionary definition of flux as part of the definition Fluxus: a continuous moving on or passing by, as of a flowing stream; a continuous succession of chances. Ben Vautier's fluxus work had obvious parallels to both Klein and Manzoni.

From to he created certificates with which, as Schimmel observes; "he purchased the soul of willing participants; In Announcement of My Funeral he created certificates on which he signed both his own and Klein's death". One artist who attended to the fluxus movement briefly was Joseph Beuys. It is almost impossible to mention Joseph Beuys without saying anything about his dramatic background. In the winter of , while serving as a pilot for the Luftwaffe, Beuys was shot down over Crimea but was rescued by native Tartar tribesmen.