- Granada War
- The Final Confrontation
- File:La Rendición de Granada - esaphmaimedisf.ga - Wikimedia Commons
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The Final Confrontation
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Wabash The Fall of English France Clan loyalties were stronger than allegiance to the Emir , making consolidation of power difficult. Often, the only territory the Emir really controlled was the city of Granada. This internal fighting greatly weakened the state. The economy declined, with Granada's once world-famous porcelain manufacture disrupted and challenged by the Christian town of Manises near Valencia, in Aragon. Despite the weakening economy, taxes were still imposed at their earlier high rates to support Granada's extensive defenses and large army.
Ordinary Granadans paid triple the taxes of non-tax-exempt Castilians. These taxes did at least support a respected army; Hasan was successful in putting down Christian revolts in his lands, and some observers estimated he could muster as many as 7, horsemen.
The frontier between Granada and the Castilian lands of Andalusia was in a constant state of flux, "neither in peace nor in war. Relations were governed by occasional truces and demands for tribute should one side have been seen to overstep their bounds. Neither country's central government intervened or controlled the warfare much.
The war raged from —, setting Isabella's supporters and the Crown of Aragon against Joanna's supporters, Portugal , and France. During this time, the frontier with Granada was practically ignored; the Castilians did not even bother to ask for or obtain reparation for a raid in Truces were agreed upon in , , and In , the Succession War concluded with Isabella victorious. As Isabella had married Ferdinand of Aragon in , this meant that the two powerful kingdoms of Castile and Aragon would stand united, free from inter-Christian war which had helped Granada survive.
The truce of was still theoretically in effect when Granada launched a surprise attack against Zahara in December , as part of a reprisal for a Christian raid. This attack proved to be a great provocation, and factions in favor of war in Andalusia used it to rally support for a counterstrike, quickly moving to take credit for it, and backed a wider war. The seizure of Alhama and its subsequent royal endorsement is usually said to be the formal beginning of the Granada War. Reinforcements from the rest of Castile and Aragon averted the possibility of retaking Alhama in April ; King Ferdinand formally took command at Alhama on May 14, The Christians next tried to besiege Loja but failed to take the town.
This setback was balanced by a twist that would prove to aid them greatly: on the same day that Loja was relieved, Abu Hasan's son, Abu Abdallah or Boabdil, rebelled and styled himself Emir Muhammad XII. However, at Lucena the Christians were able to defeat and capture King Boabdil. Ferdinand and Isabella had previously not been intent on conquering all of Granada.
With the capture of King Boabdil, however, Ferdinand decided to use him to conquer Granada entirely. In a letter written in August , Ferdinand wrote "To put Granada in division and destroy it We have decided to free him He [Boabdil] has to make war on his father. A Granadan chronicler commented that Boabdil's capture was "the cause of the fatherland's destruction. In , the fortunes of the Granadan internal conflict shifted yet again. Al-Zagal also took command of the nation, dethroning his aging brother, who died shortly thereafter.
- Nonlinear Waves?
- The Treaty of Granada, ;
- Texian Stomping Grounds (Publications of the Texas Folklore Society).
Ronda fell to him after fifteen days, thanks to his negotiations with the city's leaders. Ronda's fall allowed Marbella , a base of the Granadan fleet, to come into Christian hands next. Boabdil was soon released from Christian protection to resume his bid for control of Granada.
For the next three years, he acted as one of Ferdinand and Isabella's vassals. The Jews of Malaga, however, were spared, as Castilian Jews ransomed them from slavery. Boabdil took no action as the Christian forces took some of his land, perhaps assuming it would shortly be returned to him.
In , the Christian forces began a painfully long siege of Baza , the most important stronghold remaining to al-Zagal. Baza was highly defensible as it required the Christians to split their armies, and artillery was of little use against it. Supplying the army caused a huge budget shortfall for the Castilians. Occasional threats of deprivation of office were necessary to keep the army in the field, and Isabella came personally to the siege to help maintain the morale of both the nobles and the soldiers.
After six months, al-Zagal surrendered, despite his garrison still being largely unharmed; he had become convinced that the Christians were serious about maintaining the siege as long as it would take, and further resistance was useless without the hope of relief, of which there was no sign. With the fall of Baza and the capture of al-Zagal in , it seemed as if the war was over; Ferdinand and Isabella believed this was the case. He broke off his vassalage and rebelled against the Catholic Monarchs, despite holding only the city of Granada and the Alpujarras Mountains.
As Castile and Aragon were fellow enemies of the Turks, the Sultan had no desire to break their alliance against the Turks. Boabdil also requested aid from the Kingdom of Fez modern Morocco , but no reply is recorded by history. In any case, the Granadans no longer controlled any coastline from where to receive overseas aid. This is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art.
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